Italy has a remarkable cultural heritage and buildings of prestige for both art and history, that need a qualified programming in order to be handed down intact as evidence of civilization. It comes to plan and implement those interventions aimed at restoring glory to factories, sometimes abandoned, arguing the importance of providing the intended construction use as an essential element for its preservation.
The religious buildings are part of the cultural heritage; they represent works of architecture from past times, even before the discovery of electricity, and require an adjustment and all those measures to make them safe and accessible.
Security, usability, comfort, are dynamic concepts, constantly processing, in the sense that they change depending on the needs of people and based on their discoveries. In the past the churches were lit by candles and lanterns, nowadays there are light bulbs, fiber optics, LED; years ago we warmed with wood stoves, today we use systems powered by electricity, given the high risk of fire.
The current research fitted into this frame, and has as its objective the definition of a methodological approach on the design criteria of the electricity system in historical buildings, focusing on the importance of integrated design. Indeed, it is unreasonable that the plant planning is disjoint from those related to the structural configuration of the work. In this sense, we focus on the Vitruviusâ€™ lesson and the harmony of the sections by virtue of the quality of the whole.
The integrated design had to exist among the plants which must optimize the building operation without any kind of interference. For this reason, we examined the â€śbusâ€ť information and communication technology in the architectural and artistic contest and not only in the industrial one. Accordingly, we studied the most interesting designs about plant automation system of the San Carlo theatre and the National Library in Naples.
ďżĽďżĽWe examined cases from royal house, museums, to the worship buildings, all effective models that helped us to investigate how they dealt with plant issues, and raise proposals for improvement. Therefore, we studied in deep the main features of the lighting of historic buildings, focusing on the installations of light sources for both outdoor and indoor lighting, and for the art works.
For the latest case we refer to the lighting design of the Farnese collection in the Archaeological Museum in Naples.
Based on a thorough literature review on the different rule experiences over the years, our research then focused on the rule CEI 64-15, which applies to electrical installations in buildings subject to protection under the law 1089/1939 . In this sense, it was not only effective to study the meaning, but to understand the legislative evolution that led to the current provisions, analyzing the concept of “waiver ” of the legislator, as attempt to combine the historic and artistic integrity of works subject to protection with new technologies.
Just because the plant is at the service of people and their needs will progress studies, the research explores the topic of “different ability”, in order to evaluate the design choices, making a current general picture. Only with the approval of the law 13/89, the discipline of restoration has begun to wonder the accessibility and use of architectural spaces; for that reason, the study investigates the possibility of change and adaptation of ancient buildings, such as the Sanctuary of St. Maria dellâ€™Aiuto in Naples.
Then, we developed a project on the plant adaptation for the â€śBasilica of San Paolo fuori le muraâ€ť in Vatican. In the course of the study we designed solutions on safety and fire prevention, protection systems against lightning and thermal plant. The design experience of this practical and complex case had as its objectives the synthesis of guidelines and the experimental evaluation of an ameliorative proposal.